Petsburg

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Sankt Petersburg (russisch Санкт-Петербург Sankt-Peterburg; kurz auch St. Petersburg, örtlicher Spitzname Piter nach der ursprünglich dem Niederländischen. Petersburg steht für: Petersburg (Osnabrück), eine Festung in Osnabrück, Niedersachsen; Petersburg (Roman), einen Roman von Andrej Bely aus dem Jahre. St. Petersburg ist seit jeher Russlands Tor zum Westen und heute die nördlichste Millionen-Metropole der Erde. Und weil sie nördlich des Breitengrades. Wissenswertes über Sankt Petersburg, Russlands zweite Hauptstadt. Informationen über Sehenswürdigkeiten und interessante Orte zwischen Newa und. Der große Reiseführer für Russlands Stadt Sankt Petersburg, mit vielen Tipps für Reisen und Informationen zu Sehenswürdigkeiten, Geschichte und Kultur.

Petsburg

Wissenswertes über Sankt Petersburg, Russlands zweite Hauptstadt. Informationen über Sehenswürdigkeiten und interessante Orte zwischen Newa und. Petersburg wächst weiter, doch mit der Stadt auch die Kluft zwischen arm und reich. Straßenszene in St. Petersburg St. Petersburg ist eine Stadt der sozialen. Der große Reiseführer für Russlands Stadt Sankt Petersburg, mit vielen Tipps für Reisen und Informationen zu Sehenswürdigkeiten, Geschichte und Kultur. Petersburg. Kultur: Die Petersburger bezeichnen ihre Stadt als Hauptstadt der Kultur. Mit ihren zahlreichen Museen, allen voran die berühmten Sammlungen der. Sankt Petersburg hat einige informelle Namen. Die Nordhauptstadt, Venedig des Nordens, Palmyra des Nordens, Peters Stadt, Stadt der weißen Nächten, Stadt. Petersburg wächst weiter, doch mit der Stadt auch die Kluft zwischen arm und reich. Straßenszene in St. Petersburg St. Petersburg ist eine Stadt der sozialen. Sankt Petersburg und das umliegende Oblast Leningrad gehören zu den wirtschaftlich führenden Regionen Russlands; die Stadt wird aufgrund ihrer Attraktivität.

During the ensuing Civil War , in general Yudenich advancing from Estonia repeated the attempt to capture the city, but Leon Trotsky mobilized the army and forced him to retreat.

On 26 January , five days after Lenin's death, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad. Later some streets and other toponyms were renamed accordingly.

The city has over places associated with the life and activities of Lenin. Some of them were turned into museums, [34] including the cruiser Aurora —a symbol of the October Revolution and the oldest ship in the Russian Navy.

In the s and s, the poor outskirts were reconstructed into regularly planned boroughs. Constructivist architecture flourished around that time.

Housing became a government-provided amenity ; many "bourgeois" apartments were so large that numerous families were assigned to what were called "communal" apartments kommunalkas.

In a new general plan was outlined, whereby the city should expand to the south. Constructivism was rejected in favour of a more pompous Stalinist architecture.

Moving the city centre further from the border with Finland, Stalin adopted a plan to build a new city hall with a huge adjacent square at the southern end of Moskovsky Prospekt , designated as the new main street of Leningrad.

Nevsky Prospekt with Palace Square maintained the functions and the role of a city centre. In December , Leningrad was administratively separated from Leningrad Oblast.

At that time it included the Leningrad Suburban District, some parts of which were transferred back to Leningrad Oblast in and turned into Vsevolozhsky District , Krasnoselsky District , Pargolovsky District and Slutsky District renamed Pavlovsky District in On 1 December , Sergey Kirov , the popular communist leader of Leningrad, was assassinated, which became the pretext for the Great Purge.

The Siege of Leningrad proved one of the longest, most destructive, and most lethal sieges of a major city in modern history.

It isolated the city from food supplies except those provided through the Road of Life across Lake Ladoga , which could not make it through until the lake literally froze.

More than one million civilians were killed, mainly from starvation. Many others escaped or were evacuated, so the city became largely depopulated.

A law acknowledging the honorary title of "Hero City" passed on 8 May the 20th anniversary of the victory in the Great Patriotic War , during the Brezhnev era.

These included the town of Terijoki renamed Zelenogorsk in The general plan for Leningrad featured radial urban development in the north as well as in the south.

In Pavlovsky District in Leningrad Oblast was abolished, and parts of its territory, including Pavlovsk, merged with Leningrad.

In the settlements Levashovo , Pargolovo and Pesochny merged with Leningrad. Leningrad gave its name to the Leningrad Affair — , a notable event in the postwar political struggle in the USSR.

It was a product of rivalry between Stalin's potential successors where one side was represented by the leaders of the city Communist Party organization—the second most significant one in the country after Moscow.

The entire elite leadership of Leningrad was destroyed, including the former mayor Kuznetsov , the acting mayor Pyotr Sergeevich Popkov, and all their deputies; overall 23 leaders were sentenced to the death penalty, to prison or exile exonerated in About 2, ranking officials across the USSR were expelled from the party and the Komsomol and removed from leadership positions.

They were accused of Russian nationalism. The Leningrad Metro underground rapid transit system , designed before the war, opened in with its first eight stations decorated with marble and bronze.

However, after Stalin's death in , the perceived ornamental excesses of the Stalinist architecture were abandoned. From the s to the s many new residential boroughs were built on the outskirts; while the functionalist apartment blocks were nearly identical to each other, many families moved there from kommunalkas in the city centre to live in separate apartments.

On 12 June , simultaneously with the first Russian presidential elections , the city authorities arranged for the mayoral elections and a referendum upon the name of the city, when the name reverted to Saint Petersburg.

Meanwhile, economic conditions started to deteriorate as the country tried to adapt to major changes. For the first time since the s, food rationing was introduced, and the city received humanitarian food aid from abroad.

On 13 June Saint Petersburg, alongside Leningrad Oblast and Tver Oblast , signed a power-sharing agreement with the federal government, granting it autonomy.

In , Vladimir Yakovlev defeated Anatoly Sobchak in the elections for the head of the city administration. The title of the city head was changed from "mayor" to "governor".

In Yakovlev won re-election. His second term expired in ; the long-awaited restoration of the broken subway connection was expected to finish by that time.

But in Yakovlev suddenly resigned, leaving the governor's office to Valentina Matviyenko. The law on election of the City Governor was changed, breaking the tradition of democratic election by a universal suffrage.

In the city legislature re-approved Matviyenko as governor. Residential building had intensified again; real-estate prices inflated greatly, which caused many new problems for the preservation of the historical part of the city.

Although the central part of the city has a UNESCO designation there are about 8, architectural monuments in Petersburg , the preservation of its historical and architectural environment became controversial.

In the same year, the new location for the project was relocated to Lakhta , a historical area northwest of the city centre, and the new project would be named Lakhta Center.

Construction was approved by Gazprom and the city administration and commenced in The area of Saint Petersburg city proper is Petersburg is on the middle taiga lowlands along the shores of the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland , and islands of the river delta.

The latter together with Yelagin and Kamenny Island are covered mostly by parks. The Karelian Isthmus , North of the city, is a popular resort area.

The elevation of Saint Petersburg ranges from the sea level to its highest point of Floods in Saint Petersburg are triggered by a long wave in the Baltic Sea , caused by meteorological conditions, winds and shallowness of the Neva Bay.

The five most disastrous floods occurred in 4. To prevent floods, the Saint Petersburg Dam has been constructed. Besides the Neva and its tributaries, other important rivers of the federal subject of Saint Petersburg are Sestra , Okhta and Izhora.

The largest lake is Sestroretsky Razliv in the north, followed by Lakhtinsky Razliv , Suzdal Lakes and other smaller lakes. Due to its northerly location at ca.

A period from mid-May to mid-July when twilight may last all night is called the white nights. Under the Köppen climate classification , Saint Petersburg is classified as Dfb , a humid continental climate.

The distinct moderating influence of Baltic Sea cyclones results in warm, humid and short summers and long, moderately cold wet winters. The climate of Saint Petersburg is close to that of Helsinki , although colder in winter and warmer in summer because of its more eastern location.

The average annual temperature is 5. The Neva River within the city limits usually freezes up in November—December and break-up occurs in April.

Despite St. Petersburg's northern location, its winters are warmer than Moscow's due to the Gulf of Finland and some Gulf Stream influence from Scandinavian winds that can bring temperature slightly above freezing.

The city also has a slightly warmer climate than its suburbs. Weather conditions are quite variable all year round. Soil moisture is almost always high because of lower evapotranspiration due to the cool climate.

The first and fairly rich chapter of the history of the local toponymy is the story of the city's name. The consecration of the small wooden church in their names its construction began at the same time as the citadel made them the heavenly patrons of the Peter and Paul Fortress , while St.

Peter at the same time became the eponym of the whole city. In June Peter the Great gave the site the name Sankt Pieter Burkh an emulation of Dutch topografical suffix -burg , which refers to fortified towns and places, as Peter was a Neerlandophile which was subsequently russified.

A to letter-long name, composed of the three roots proved too cumbersome, and many shortened versions were used. It took some years until the known Russian spelling of this name finally settled.

In the s Alexander Pushkin translated the "foreign" city name of "Saint Petersburg" to the more Russian Petrograd in one of his poems.

Since the prefix "Saint" was omitted, [57] this act also changed the eponym and the "patron" of the city, from Apostle Peter to Peter the Great, [ citation needed ] its founder.

A referendum on reversing the renaming of Leningrad was held on 12 June , with Renaming the city Petrograd was not an option.

This change officially took effect on 6 September Having passed the role of capital to Petersburg, Moscow never relinquished the title of "capital", being called pervoprestolnaya "first-throned" for years.

An equivalent name for Petersburg, the "Northern Capital", has re-entered usage today since several federal institutions were recently moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg.

Solemn descriptive names like "the city of three revolutions" and "the cradle of the October revolution " used in Soviet-era are reminders of the pivotal events in national history that occurred here.

For their part, poetic names of the city, like the " Venice of the North " and the "Northern Palmyra " emphasize town-planning and architectural features contrasting these parallels to the northern location of this megalopolis.

Saint Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia. As of the Rosstat , the federal subject's population is 5,, or 3.

The Census recorded the ethnic composition as follows: [59] Russian The ethnicity of the remaining During the 20th century, the city experienced dramatic population changes.

From 2. The minorities of Germans, Poles, Finns, Estonians and Latvians were almost completely transferred from Leningrad during the s.

Some evacuees returned after the siege, but most influx was due to migration from other parts of the Soviet Union. From to the city's population decreased to 4.

Based on the census results the population is over 4. People in urban Saint Petersburg lived mostly in apartments. Between and the s, the Soviets nationalised housing and forced residents to share communal apartments kommunalkas.

Resettling residents of kommunalkas is now on the way out, albeit shared apartments are still not uncommon.

As new boroughs were built on the outskirts in the s—s, over half a million low-income families eventually received free apartments, and about an additional hundred thousand condos were purchased.

While economic and social activity is concentrated in the historic city centre , the richest part of Saint Petersburg, most people live in commuter areas.

Among the believers, the overwhelming majority of the residents of the city are Orthodox In total, religious buildings in the city are owned or run by religious associations.

Among them are architectural monuments of federal significance. The oldest cathedral in the city is the Peter and Paul Cathedral , built between , and the largest is the Kazan Cathedral , completed in Saint Petersburg is a federal subject of Russia a federal city.

Saint Petersburg has a single-chamber legislature, the Saint Petersburg Legislative Assembly , which is the city's regional parliament.

According to the federal law passed in , heads of federal subjects, including the governor of Saint Petersburg, were nominated by the President of Russia and approved by local legislatures.

Should the legislature disapprove the nominee, the President could dissolve it. The former governor, Valentina Matviyenko , was approved according to the new system in December She was the only woman governor in the whole of Russia until her resignation on 22 August Matviyenko stood for elections as member of the Regional Council of Saint Petersburg and won comprehensively with allegations of rigging and ballot stuffing by the opposition.

Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has already backed her for the position of Speaker to the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation and her election qualifies her for that job.

After her resignation, Georgy Poltavchenko was appointed as the new acting governor the same day. In , following passage of a new federal law, [75] restoring direct elections of heads of federal subjects, the city charter was again amended to provide for direct elections of governor.

Saint Petersburg is also the unofficial but de facto administrative centre of Leningrad Oblast , and of the Northwestern Federal District. Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, being two different federal subjects, share a number of local departments of federal executive agencies and courts, such as court of arbitration, police, FSB , postal service, drug enforcement administration, penitentiary service, federal registration service, and other federal services.

Saint Petersburg is a major trade gateway, serving as the financial and industrial centre of Russia, with specializations in oil and gas trade; shipbuilding yards; aerospace industry ; technology, including radio, electronics, software, and computers; machine building, heavy machinery and transport, including tanks and other military equipment ; mining; instrument manufacture; ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy production of aluminium alloys ; chemicals, pharmaceuticals , and medical equipment ; publishing and printing; food and catering; wholesale and retail; textile and apparel industries; and many other businesses.

It was also home to Lessner, one of Russia's two pioneering automobile manufacturers along with Russo-Baltic ; it was founded by machine tool and boiler maker G.

Lessner in , with designs by Boris Loutsky, and it survived until Ten per cent of the world's power turbines are made there at the LMZ , which built over two thousand turbines for power plants across the world.

International cruise liners have been served at the passenger port at Morskoy Vokzal on the south-west of Vasilyevsky Island. In the first two berths opened at the New Passenger Port on the west of the island.

A complex system of riverports on both banks of the Neva River are interconnected with the system of seaports, thus making Saint Petersburg the main link between the Baltic Sea and the rest of Russia through the Volga-Baltic Waterway.

The Saint Petersburg Mint Monetny Dvor , founded in , is one of the largest mints in the world, it mints Russian coins , medals and badges.

Saint Petersburg is also home to the oldest and largest Russian foundry, Monumentskulptura, which made thousands of sculptures and statues that now grace public parks of Saint Petersburg, as well as many other cities.

Monuments and bronze statues of the Tsars, as well as other important historic figures and dignitaries, and other world-famous monuments, such as the sculptures by Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg , Paolo Troubetzkoy , Mark Antokolsky , and others, were made there.

Opel , Hyundai and Nissan have also signed deals with the Russian government to build their automotive plants in Saint Petersburg.

Automotive and auto-parts industry is on the rise there during the last decade. Saint Petersburg has a large brewery and distillery industry.

The city's many local distilleries produce a broad range of vodka brands. In this brand was exported to over 70 countries.

Saint Petersburg has the second largest construction industry in Russia, including commercial, housing and road construction. Budget revenues of the city in amounted to In , St.

Petersburg was ranked in 4th place economically amongst all federal subjects of the Russian Federation, surpassed only by Moscow, the Tyumen and Moscow Region.

Saint Petersburg has three skyscrapers: Leader Tower m , Alexander Nevsky m and Atlantic City m all far from the historical centre. Regulations forbid construction of tall buildings in the city centre.

In , the World Monuments Fund included the Saint Petersburg historic skyline on the watch list of the most endangered sites due to the expected construction, which threatens to alter it drastically.

The complex includes metre-tall 1,foot office skyscraper and several low rise mixed use buildings. The Lakhta Center project has caused much less controversy and, unlike the previous unbuilt project, is not seen by UNESCO as a potential threat to the city's cultural heritage because it is far from the historical centre.

The skyscraper was completed in , and at Unlike in Moscow, the historic architecture of Saint Petersburg's city centre, mostly Baroque and Neoclassical buildings of the 18th and 19th centuries, has been largely preserved; although a number of buildings were demolished after the Bolsheviks' seizure of power, during the Siege of Leningrad and in recent years.

Each noon a cannon fires a blank shot from the fortress. The Saint Petersburg Mosque , the largest mosque in Europe when opened in , is on the right bank nearby.

The southern coast of Vasilyevsky Island along the Bolshaya Neva features some of the city's oldest buildings, dating from the 18th century, including the Kunstkamera , Twelve Collegia , Menshikov Palace and Imperial Academy of Arts.

It hosts one of two campuses of Saint Petersburg State University. On the southern, left bank of the Neva, connected to the spit of Vasilyevsky Island via the Palace Bridge , lie the Admiralty building , the vast Hermitage Museum complex stretching along the Palace Embankment , which includes the Baroque Winter Palace , former official residence of Russian emperors, as well as the neoclassical Marble Palace.

Nevsky Prospekt , also on the left bank of the Neva , is the city's main avenue. It starts at the Admiralty and runs eastwards next to Palace Square.

The Passage , Catholic Church of St. The Alexander Nevsky Lavra , intended to house the relics of St. Alexander Nevsky , is an important centre of Christian education in Russia.

It also contains the Tikhvin Cemetery with graves of many notable Petersburgers. Many notable landmarks are to the west and south of the Admiralty Building, including the Trinity Cathedral , Mariinsky Palace , Hotel Astoria , famous Mariinsky Theatre , New Holland Island , Saint Isaac's Cathedral , the largest in the city, and Senate Square , with the Bronze Horseman , 18th century equestrian monument to Peter the Great , which is considered among the city's most recognisable symbols.

Other symbols of Saint Petersburg include the weather vane in the shape of a small ship on top of the Admiralty's golden spire and the golden angel on top of the Peter and Paul Cathedral.

The Palace Bridge drawn at night is yet another symbol of the city. From April to November, 22 bridges across the Neva and main canals are drawn to let ships pass in and out of the Baltic Sea according to a schedule.

The most remarkable bridges of our days are Korabelny and Petrovsky cable-stayed bridges, which form the most spectacular part of the city toll road, Western High-Speed Diameter.

There are hundreds of smaller bridges in Saint Petersburg spanning numerous canals and distributaries of the Neva, some of the most important of which are the Moika , Fontanka , Griboyedov Canal , Obvodny Canal , Karpovka and Smolenka.

Due to the intricate web of canals, Saint Petersburg is often called Venice of the North. The rivers and canals in the city centre are lined with granite embankments.

The embankments and bridges are separated from rivers and canals by granite or cast iron parapets. Southern suburbs of the city feature former imperial residences, including Petergof , with majestic fountain cascades and parks, Tsarskoe Selo , with the baroque Catherine Palace and the neoclassical Alexander Palace , and Pavlovsk , which has a domed palace of Emperor Paul and one of Europe's largest English-style parks.

Some other residences nearby and making part of the world heritage site, including a castle and park in Gatchina , actually belong to Leningrad Oblast rather than Saint Petersburg.

Another notable suburb is Kronstadt with its 19th-century fortifications and naval monuments, occupying the Kotlin Island in the Gulf of Finland.

Since around the end of the 20th century a great deal of active building and restoration works have been carried out in a number of the city's older districts.

The authorities have recently been compelled to transfer the ownership of state-owned private residences in the city centre to private lessors.

Many older buildings have been reconstructed to allow their use as apartments and penthouses. Some of these structures, such as the Saint Petersburg Commodity and Stock Exchange have been recognised as town-planning errors.

Saint Petersburg is home to many parks and gardens. Some of the most well-known are in the southern suburbs, including Pavlovsk , one of Europe's largest English gardens.

Sosnovka is the largest park within the city limits, occupying ha. The Summer Garden is the oldest, dating back to the early 18th century and designed in the regular style.

It is on the Neva's southern bank at the head of the Fontanka and is famous for its cast iron railing and marble sculptures. The most common trees grown in the parks are the English oak , Norway maple , green ash , silver birch , Siberian Larch , blue spruce , crack willow , limes , and poplars.

Important dendrological collections dating back to the 19th century are hosted by the Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden and the Park of the Forestry Academy.

In order to commemorate years anniversary of Saint Petersburg a new park was laid out. The park is in the northwestern part of the city.

The construction was started in It is planned to connect the park with the pedestrian bridge to the territory of Lakhta Center 's recreation areas.

In the park trees of valuable sorts, decorative apple-trees, 70 limes. These trees were presented to Saint Petersburg by non-commercial and educational organizations of the city, its sister-cities, city of Helsinki, heads of other regions of Russia, German Savings Bank and other people and organizations.

Saint Petersburg has a significant historical and cultural heritage. The 18th and 19th century architectural ensemble of the city and its environs is preserved in virtually unchanged form.

For various reasons including large-scale destruction during World War II and construction of modern buildings during the postwar period in the largest historical centres of Europe , Saint Petersburg has become a unique reserve of European architectural styles of the past three centuries.

Saint Petersburg's loss of capital city status helped it retain many of its pre-revolutionary buildings, as modern architectural 'prestige projects' tended to be built in Moscow; this largely prevented the rise of mid-to-lateth century architecture and helped maintain the architectural appearance of the historic city centre.

Saint Petersburg is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list as an area with 36 historical architectural complexes and around outstanding individual monuments of architecture, history and culture.

New tourist programs and sightseeing tours have been developed for those wishing to see Saint Petersburg's cultural heritage. The city has museums, libraries, more than 80 theatres, concert organizations, 45 galleries and exhibition halls, 62 cinemas and around 80 other cultural establishments.

Every year the city hosts around festivals and various competitions of art and culture, including more than 50 international ones.

Despite the economic instability of the s , not a single major theatre or museum was closed in Saint Petersburg; on the contrary many new ones opened, for example a private museum of puppets opened in is the third museum of its kind in Russia, where collections of more than dolls are presented including 'The multinational Saint Petersburg' and Pushkin's Petersburg.

The museum world of Saint Petersburg is incredibly diverse. The city is not only home to the world-famous Hermitage Museum and the Russian Museum with its rich collection of Russian art , but also the palaces of Saint Petersburg and its suburbs, so-called small town museums and others like the museum of famous Russian writer Dostoyevsky ; Museum of Musical Instruments, the museum of decorative arts and the museum of professional orientation.

The musical life of Saint Petersburg is rich and diverse, with the city now playing host to a number of annual carnivals.

Ballet performances occupy a special place in the cultural life of Saint Petersburg. The Petersburg School of Ballet is named as one of the best in the world.

Traditions of the Russian classical school have been passed down from generation to generation among outstanding educators.

The art of famous and prominent Saint Petersburg dancers like Rudolf Nureyev , Natalia Makarova , Mikhail Baryshnikov was, and is, admired throughout the world.

Contemporary Petersburg ballet is made up not only of traditional Russian classical school, but also ballets by those like Boris Eifman , who expanded the scope of strict classical Russian ballet to almost unimaginable limits.

Remaining faithful to the classical basis he was a choreographer at the Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet , he combined classical ballet with the avant-garde style , and then, in turn, with acrobatics, rhythmic gymnastics, dramatic expressiveness, cinema , color, light, and finally with spoken word.

All major Russian newspapers are active in Saint Petersburg. The city has a developed telecommunications system. In Rostelecom , the national operator announced it began a major modernization of the fixed-line network in the city.

Saint Petersburg is home to more than two hundred museums, many of them in historic buildings. The largest is the Hermitage Museum that features the interiors of the former imperial residence and a vast collection of art.

The Russian Museum is a large museum devoted to Russian fine art. Isaac's Cathedral, have also been turned into public museums.

The Kunstkamera , with its collection established in by Peter the Great to collect curiosities from all over the world, is sometimes considered the first museum in Russia, which has evolved into the present-day Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography.

Among the city's more than fifty theatres is the Mariinsky Theatre formerly known as the Kirov Theatre , home to the Mariinsky Ballet company and opera.

The first music school, the Saint Petersburg Conservatory , was founded in by the Russian pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein.

The school alumni have included such notable composers as Pyotr Tchaikovsky , Sergei Prokofiev , Artur Kapp , Rudolf Tobias and Dmitri Shostakovich , who taught at the conservatory during the s, bringing it additional fame.

The renowned Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov also taught at the conservatory from to The former St. Petersburg apartment of Rimsky-Korsakov has been faithfully preserved as the composer's only museum.

Dmitri Shostakovich, who was born and raised in Saint Petersburg, dedicated his Seventh Symphony to the city, calling it the "Leningrad Symphony".

He wrote the symphony while based in the city during the siege of Leningrad. It was premiered in Samara in March ; a few months later, it received its first performance in the besieged Leningrad at the Bolshoy Philharmonic Hall under the baton of conductor Karl Eliasberg.

It was heard over the radio and was said to have lifted the spirits of the surviving population. Mravinsky's term as artistic director of the Leningrad Philharmonic—a term that is possibly the longest of any conductor with any orchestra in modern times—led the orchestra from a little-known provincial ensemble to one of the world's most highly regarded orchestras, especially for the performance of Russian music.

The Imperial Choral Capella was founded and modelled after the royal courts of other European capitals.

Saint Petersburg has been home to the newest movements in popular music in the country. The first jazz band in the Soviet Union was founded here by Leonid Utyosov in the s, under the patronage of Isaak Dunayevsky.

The first jazz club in the Soviet Union was founded here in the s and was later named jazz club Kvadrat. In the s student rock-groups Argonavty, Kochevniki and others pioneered a series of unofficial and underground rock concerts and festivals.

In Boris Grebenshchikov founded the band Aquarium , which later grew to huge popularity. Since then "Peter's rock" music style was formed.

In the s many bands came out from the "underground" scene and eventually founded the Leningrad Rock Club , which provided a stage to bands such as DDT , Kino , headed by Viktor Tsoi , Alisa , Zemlyane , Zoopark , Piknik , Secret , and many other popular bands.

The first Russian-style happening show Pop Mekhanika, mixing over people and animals on stage, was directed by the multi-talented Sergey Kuryokhin in the s.

SKIF focuses on experimental pop music and avant garde music , Electro-Mechanica on electronic music , and Ethnomechanica on world music.

In the early s the city saw a wave of popularity of metalcore , rapcore , and emocore , and there are bands such as Amatory , Kirpichi , Psychea, Stigmata , Grenouer and Animal Jazz.

The White Nights Festival in Saint Petersburg is famous for spectacular fireworks and a massive show celebrating the end of the school year.

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Meteor hydrofoils link the city centre to the coastal towns of Kronstadt and Shlisselburg from May through October. The city is the final destination for a web of intercity and suburban railways, served by five different railway terminals Baltiysky , Finlyandsky , Ladozhsky , Moskovsky and Vitebsky , [c] [] as well as dozens of non-terminal railway stations within the federal subject.

The new train, known as Sapsan , is a derivative of the popular Siemens Velaro train; various versions of this already operate in some European countries.

These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. Vitebsky Station. Moskovsky Station. Baltiysky Station. Finlyandsky Station. Ladozhsky Station.

Saint Petersburg is served by Pulkovo International Airport. Pulkovo airport was opened to passengers as a small aerodrome in As of [update] , the Pulkovo airport, which handles over 12 million passengers annually, is the 3rd busiest in Russia after Moscow's Sheremetyevo and Domodedovo.

As a result, the steadily increasing passenger traffic has triggered a massive modernization of the entire airport infrastructure.

A newly built Terminal 1 of the Pulkovo airport was put into operation on 4 December and integrated international flights of the former terminal Pulkovo The renovated terminal Pulkovo-1 has been opened for domestic flights as an extension of the Terminal 1 in The crime dynamic in Saint Petersburg is tightly associated with the general social situation in the country.

By then the city had fallen under the control of a number of organized criminal groups such as Tambov Gang , Malyshev Gang, Kazan Gang , and ethnic criminal groups, engaged in racket , extortion , paying off local government and violent clashes with each other.

According to official sources the number of crimes committed by foreigners in Saint Petersburg in increased by Law enforcement authorities consider this was associated with an increased number of people from some CIS republics who live in Saint Petersburg illegally.

The official portal of the Government of Saint Petersburg provided data on significant improvements in the crime situation.

In , Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs warned LGBT travellers about a vaguely worded law in Saint Petersburg that came into effect on 17 March , making it a criminal offence to publicize acts of male or female homosexuality, bisexuality, or transgenderism.

The intention of the law is to protect minors. A Russian travel advisory on the Foreign Affairs website notes that while homosexuality is legal in Russia it was decriminalized in , LGBT Canadian travellers should avoid "displaying affection in public, as homosexuals can be targets of violence Public actions including dissemination of information, statements, displays or conspicuous behaviour contradicting or appearing to contradict this law may lead to arrest, prosecution and the imposition of a fine.

List of sister cities to Saint Petersburg as it appears on the official portal of the City Government, listing both sister cities and partnership ties: [].

Milan and Venice were formerly twin cities of Saint Petersburg, but suspended this link due to St Petersburg's ban on "gay propaganda".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Federal city in Russia. This article is about the city in Russia. For the city in the U. Petersburg, Florida.

For other uses, see Saint Petersburg disambiguation. For other uses, see Leningrad disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Petrovgrad. Federal city in Northwestern, Russia. Federal city. Coat of arms. Main article: Siege of Leningrad.

Main article: Geography of Saint Petersburg. Main article: Climate of Saint Petersburg. Main article: Demographics of Saint Petersburg.

Clockwise from left: The Naval St. Nicholas Cathedral ; the Church of St. Further information: Politics of Saint Petersburg. Main article: Administrative divisions of Saint Petersburg.

Main article: Economy of Saint Petersburg. Main articles: Landmarks of Saint Petersburg and Kronstadt. Main article: Society and culture in Saint Petersburg.

Further information: List of museums in Saint Petersburg. Further information: List of theatres in Saint Petersburg. See also: List of higher education and academic institutions in Saint Petersburg.

Main article: Sport in Saint Petersburg. See also: Rail transport in Russia. Main article: List of people from Saint Petersburg. See also: Crime in Russia and Tambov gang.

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia. Almaty , Kazakhstan since [] Baku , Azerbaijan since [] Daugavpils , Latvia since [] Dushanbe , Tajikistan since [] Riga , Latvia since [] [] Sevastopol since [] Tallinn , Estonia since [] Vilnius , Lithuania since [] [] Yerevan , Armenia since [] [] [].

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Retrieved 11 March Listen to this article. This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 11 August , and does not reflect subsequent edits.

Audio help More spoken articles. Articles related to Saint Petersburg. Saint Petersburg. Districts Federal City Leningrad Oblast.

Police Crime. Education primary, secondary, and tertiary. Airport Bridges Buses Metro Trams. Saint Petersburg Category Outline. Administrative divisions of Saint Petersburg.

Municipal okrugs : 72 75 Balkansky Georgiyevsky Kupchino Volkovskoye. Municipal towns : Kronshtadt. Municipal towns : Petergof Lomonosov Municipal settlements : Strelna.

Subdivisions of Russia. Federal subjects. Moscow St. Petersburg Sevastopol 1. Internal additional non-constitutional divisions by different institutions.

Historical capitals of Rus' and Russian states and their predecessors. Predecessors of modern Russia. Ryurikovo Gorodische , Novgorod — Kyiv — Vladimir-on-Klyazma — Petersburg — Petersburg — de facto Moscow — St.

Modern Russia since November 7, Petrograd November 7, — March 12, Moscow since March 12, Hero Cities of the Soviet Union.

Pedestrian zones of Saint Petersburg by creation year. Malaya Konushennaya Street. Malaya Sadovaya Street. Blagoeva street. Baltic Fleet of Russian Navy.

Admiral Aleksandr Nosatov. Saint Petersburg Kronstadt Vysotsk. Baltic Fleet page at the official Ministry of Defence website.

Saint Petersburg Navy structures. Kuznetsov Naval Academy. Malakhit Marine Engineering Bureau. Geography portal Russia portal Europe portal.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons Wikinews Wikivoyage. Flag Coat of arms. Northwestern [1].

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